“Hail, Emperor, those who are about to die salute you”

Use of the Imperative: To Command Orders.

Structure:

+                                                                                   –

Silence                                                                   Don’t silence

Be quiet                                                                 Don’t be quiet

Shut Up!                                                                Don’t shut up!

Connecting words

Greetings

Unformal letter:

Dear…, / Hi …

Formal letter:

Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss (+surname) Known addressee

Dear Sir or Madam                          Unknown addressee

 

Sequence

First, next, then, after that, afterwards, finally, …

 

Order

firstly/first of all, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, finally/lastly

 

Contrast

On the one hand […] on the other hand, although, however, [“in spite of, despite” (a pesar de) only for recognition], nevertheless, …

 

Reason and result

Because (of), so, due to (debido a), therefore, as a result, owing to, so that, in order to, consequently, for example, this means that …

 

Effect

So

 

Concession

as well as (a parte de), but for (a no ser por)

 

Condition

Unless, if, provided that, except for, …

 

Comparison

As, like, …

 

Addition

In addition, furthermore (además), besides (además), also, what’s/is more, another reason is, moreover (además), such as, too, as well,  …

Adding extra information: What else?/Oh, yes …/ I (also) wanted to tell you (that) …

 

Expressing time

At first: At first, first, firstly, first of all, …

After some time: A few minutes later, an hour later, after, afterwards, then, next, after that (después), later, later on, all of sudden, in the end (al final), finally, the next day, two weeks later, …

At the same time: as, as soon as, while, in the meantime, …

Now: At the moment, now, currently…

 

Expressing something in other way

To a certain extent – Hasta cierto punto

More or less, at least, basically, especially, in particular, above all, …

 

Giving opinions

In my opinion, in my own opinion, I think that, I would say that, It is clear that, …

 

Summing what you said, conclusion

In short (en resumen), in conclusion, on the whole, in general, to sum up (para resumir)

 

Farewell 

Informal letter:

Keep in touch. / Write soon. / Looking foward to hearing your news.

Love, / Bye, / Take care. / See you = C U.

Formal letter:

Yours sincerely (known addressee)

Yours faithfully (unknown addressee)

With or Without TO

INFINITIVE 

With TO

a. After these verbs:

                want           help              refuse

           decide        promise        persuade

           wish           plan              appear

           agree         choose          learn

           seem          hope             expect

     They decided to take my advice.

     Decidieron seguir mi consejo.

want

 want+Infinitive

Deseo de hacer algo + subordinada infinitivo (OD)

Sujeto de want y el verbo en infinitivo es igual 

        They want to go out for dinner.

        Ellos quieren salir a cenar. 

  want+Object+Infinitive 

Expresar que otra persona haga algo

En castellano consiste en una oración subordinada que lleva sujeto y verbo en subjuntivo. En inglés, en cambio, como el verbo es infinitivo con to, no se considera al sujeto directo de want.

     Do you want Jenny to come with us? 

     ¿Queréis que Jenny venga con nosotros? 

Si el sujeto de la subordinada es un pronombre personal, hay que usar pronombre objeto.

     The doctor wants her to see a specialist.

      El doctor quiere que ella vaya a un especialista.

      He doesn’t want me to go.

       Él no quiere que me vaya.


b. After adjectives and adverbs:

     This situation is not easy to understand.

     The car went too fast to see the traffic lights. 


c. With verbs + OD (Person)

           tell            invite            advise            teach            warn

     I invited her to come home.

     Le invité a venir a casa.  

         

Without TO  

a. Make & Let      

    Let me see your pictures.

    Déjame ver tus dibujos.


b. Some verbs of perception

            hear         feel            see, …  

     I heard him say that

     Yo le decir aquello


c. Modal Verbs

   can, may, …



GERUND OR -ING

Uses

a. Direct Object

   like                      dislike                    miss

   love                     hate                       suggest

   enjoy                   detest                    consider

   prefer                  deny (negar)

I miss seeing her.

Echo de menos verla.

b. After:

   can’t stand (no puedo soportar)

   can’t help (no puedo evitar) 

   do/does not mind (no importa)

   it’s no use (no tiene sentido, no merece la pena)

      It is no use crying. 

         No merece la pena llorar.

c. After all the prepositions:

    Lucy doesn’t like his way of thinking.

d. As a subject of a sentence when we talk about actions or facts in general:

    Breaking up a relationship is never easy.

e. After BE/GET USED TO, because this TO is a preposition:

    I can’t get used to having holidays without you.

    No me acostumbro a ir de vacaciones sin ti.

With or Without TO

Verbs followed by Gerund and Infinitive

like

+to  “the right thing to do”

I like to do the shopping as soon as I finish cleaning.

Me gusta hacer la compra en cuanto termino de limpiar. 

       would like

I would like to have a cup of tea.

Me gustaría tomar una taza de té.  

-ing “enjoy

I like watching shows on the computer.

Me gusta ver series en el ordenador.

 

try

+to “make an attempt”

I’m trying to learn Russian but it’s very difficult.

Estoy intentando aprender ruso pero es muy difícil.

-ing “make an experiment”

Have you tried using shampoo instead of soap?

¿Has probado a usar champú en vez de jabón?

stop

+to “parar de hacer otra cosa”  

On my way home, I stopped to buy some milk.

De camino a casa paré a comprar algo de leche.

-ing “dejar de hacer algo”        

He didn’t stop thinking about trip to London.

Él no pudo parar de pensar sobre el viaje a Londres.

remember/forget

+to “information for housesites”

– Remember to clean the table

  Acuérdate de limpiar la mesa. 

  Remember to lock the house.

  Acuérdate de cerrar con llave la casa.

– Don’t forget to feed the cat.

  No te olvides de dar de comer al gato

  Don’t forget to water the plants.

  No te olvides de regar las plantas.

-ing “childrehood memories”

– I remember seeing them together. 

  Recuerdo haberlos visto juntos.

– I‘ll never forget skiing.

  Nunca olvidaré esquiar.

regret

+to “to be sorry to do something”

Before this verbs:

announce               tell          inform

say                         see         learn

I regret to inform that your driving licence has expired. 

 Lamento informarle de que su licencia de conducir ha expirado/caducado. 

-ing “to be sorry to/not to have done something

I regret spending all the money. I haven’t got any left.

Me arrepiento de haberme gastado todo el dinero. No me queda nada. 

 

Make & Do

Make often refers to creative or productive processes, while Do often refers to the performance of a service or work.

Do 

Do your best                                                    Hacer lo mejor que puedas

Do business with someone                              Hacer negocios con alguien

Do your duty                                                   Cumplir tu deber

Do someone a favour                                      Hacer a alguien un favor

Do harm to someone                                       Dañar a alguien

Do damage                                                      Hacer daño

Do someone a good turn                                 Prestarle a alguien un buen servicio

Do the washing-up                                          Hacer la fregada, fregar los platos

Do the shopping                                              Hacer la compra, comprar

Do wrong or right                                           Hacerlo mal o hacer lo correcto

Do your own thing                                          Hacer tus cosas

Do away with                                                  (alguien) suicidarse/(algo) salirse, eliminar

Do out of                                                         Estafar

Do without                                                      Arreglarselas sin

Do with one’s                                                  Estar conectado o relacionado con alguien

Do justice to someone                                     Hacer justicia a alguien

Do the cleaning                                               Hacer la limpieza

Do the housework                                           Hacer las cosas de la casa

Do your homework                                         Hacer tus deberes (del colegio)

Make                                     

Make progress                                                  Hacer un progreso, progresar                      

Make room                                                       Hacer sitio, porrerse                  

Make an agreement with someone                   Llegar a un acuerdo con alguien

Make an appointment                                       Arreglar una cita, citarse con alguien (cita no amorosa)

Make trouble                                                    Dar problema

Make an attempt                                               Hacer un intento

Make certain about something                         Tener la certeza de algo, cerciorarse de algo

Make sure                                                         Tener seguro, asegurarse

Make a comment about something                   Hacer un comentario sobre algo, comentar algo

Make a bed                                                        Hacer la cama

Make an excuse                                                 Tener una excusa, excusarse

Make a good impression                                   Dar (una) buena impresión

Make friends with someone                              Trabajar para convertirse en amigo de alguien

Make a lot of money                                         Hacer mucho dinero

Make a suggestion                                             Hacer una sugerencia, sugerir

Make love                                                          Hacer el amor

Make war                                                           Hacer la guerra

Make a mistake                                                  Hacer un error, Cometer un error, meter la pata

Make a noise                                                      Hacer ruido

Make a profit or loss                                          Tener un provecho/beneficio o una pérdida

Make plans                                                         Hacer planes, planear

Make a reservation                                             Hacer una reserva, reservar

Make a scene                                                      Montar una escena

Make for                                                             Conducir hacia/Contribuir a, conducir a

Make off/off with                                               Escapar, huir/Robar, escapar con

Make up/up for lost time                                   Crear/Recuperar el tiempo perdido

Make out                                                            Liarse (amorosamente)

Making a mountain out of a molehill                Hacer una montaña de un grano de arena

Make it up to someone                                      Compensar

Make up                                                             Maquillarse

“Rats” of the Verbs

Present Simple

Habits:

Always, frequently, usually, generally, often, everyday

sometimes, rarely, seldom, once a week/month/year,

in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night/noon/midday

never, …

 

Present Continuous

Present: At the moment, at present, this year, now,

Future: Tonight, tomorrow, next Saturday

 

Present Perfect

It affects the present: Ever, never, just, yet, recently, already

It continues until the present: For, since, how long…?

Stative Verbs: Feelings and emotions.

 

Past Simple

Completed action: Two days ago, yesterday, last week, …

Series of completed actions: When, then, …

 

Past Continuous

Incompleted action in progress at specific time in the past:

At 8 o’clock last night, while, as

Action in progress in the past, interrupted by another action:

____ when + (Past Simple)

Two incompleted actions in the past:

While ____ , ____

 

Past Perfect

A completed action which happened before another action or time in the past:

Already, by the time, before, …

 

Future Simple                  Versus                            Be + Going to

Sudden decision                                         Plans for the future and intentions

Predicting the future                  An action which is clearly going to happen

A future timeble

Promises

Offers

Refusals

Requests

Suggestions

This evening, later, next week, soon, at ten o’clock, in the future, tomorrow, in an hour

 

Future Continuous

In progress at a specific time in the future:

At this time tomorrow,

by 7 o’clock,

by the end of …,

at this time,

next…

 

Future Perfect

It will be completed by specific time in the future:

By this time next week,

by ten o’clock,

by then, …